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文章摘要
王永波,刘金叶,陈傅晓,黄 敏,符书源.海南地区石斑鱼养殖鱼蛭病的初步研究[J].海南大学学报编辑部:自然科学版,2018,36(3):.
海南地区石斑鱼养殖鱼蛭病的初步研究
A study on the leech Zeylanicobdella arugamensis parasitic of grouper culture in Hainan
投稿时间:2018-03-15  修订日期:2018-04-09
DOI:
中文关键词: 菲利宾蛭;石斑鱼;海南
英文关键词: Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; grouper; Hainan
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
王永波 海南省海洋与渔业科学院 wangyongbo211@163.com 
刘金叶 海南省海洋与渔业科学院  
陈傅晓 海南省海洋与渔业科学院  
黄 敏 海南省海洋与渔业科学院  
符书源 海南省海洋与渔业科学院 378888932@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      近年来,在海南地区养殖的石斑鱼鱼体上寄生感染了一种鱼蛭,为了了解该蛭的种类、宿主和寄生偏好,对该蛭进行了形态学观察描述、基于NJ法构建了COI、NDI和18s rDNA基因的系统发生树、调查总结了该蛭的宿主和寄生偏好等实验,结果显示:寄生在海南地区养殖石斑鱼上的鱼蛭为菲利宾蛭(Zeylanicobdella arugamensis),呈圆柱形,体长9mm~15mm,体宽0.7mm~1.2mm,呈黑褐色或土黄色,体表有6条纵向黑色斑点带,前后端各有一个吸盘,前吸盘椭圆形,直径约1.0mm,有6条放射状黑褐色色斑带,尾吸盘大于前吸盘,直径约1.9mm,呈卵圆形,有14条放射状黑褐色色斑带,无眼型黑点,头部背面近基部有1对椭圆形眼点,身体柔软光滑,体表无乳突和搏动囊,产圆形不透明卵,卵径约0.6mm;构建了基于COI、NDI和18s rDNA基因序列的系统发生树和比对分析,显示该蛭与在Borneo采集的菲利宾蛭亲缘关系最近为一个种,系统发生上最先聚到一起,之后依次跟鱼蛭科的热蛭属、鱼蛭属和囊蛭属的种类遗传距离较近,之后再跟黄蛭科的光润金线蛭和医蛭科的日本医蛭聚到一起,遗传距离较远;在海南地区发现了9种菲利宾蛭海水鱼类宿主,为豹纹鳃棘鲈(Plectropomus leopardus)、棕点石斑鱼(Epinephelus fuscoguttatus)、点带石斑鱼(Epinephelus malabaricus)、斜带石斑鱼(Epinephelus coioides)、鞍带石斑鱼(Epinephelus lanceolatus)、珍珠龙胆石斑鱼(Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀)、驼背鲈(Cromileptes altivelis)、波纹唇鱼(Cheilinus undulatus)、六斑刺鲀(Diodon holocanthus)等,并发现菲利宾蛭最喜欢寄生在豹纹鳃棘鲈上,对5种石斑鱼的寄生偏好依次为豹纹鳃棘鲈>点带石斑鱼≥棕点石斑鱼>珍珠龙胆石斑鱼>龙胆石斑鱼。笔者推测寄生在海南地区养殖石斑鱼体上的菲利宾蛭是通过石斑鱼贸易进入海南的一个外来种,该蛭对海南地区海水鱼类养殖不会直接造成损害,但该蛭的繁殖速度快,易造成石斑鱼烂身、消瘦、营养不良、减产严重,更是作为血液细菌、病毒、寄生虫等疾病传播的媒介引发海水鱼养殖大量发病的可能。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, there is a fish leech found parasitic on the fish body of cultured grouper in Hainan. To make clear the species of leeches, the morphological research was conducted and phylogenetic trees were constructed by NJ method based on COI, NDI and 18s rDNA gene. The morphological results were as follows: the species of the leech found in Hainan Island is Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; cylindrical with body length of 9mm~15mm and body width of 0.7mm~1.2mm; dark brown or yellowish brown with 6 longitudinal black spots on the surface; two sucher on each end, the front sucker is oval with the maximum diameter about 1.0mm and 6 radial dark brown spots, the tail sucker is larger with the diameter about 1.9mm and 14 radial dark brown spots and no eye spots; one pairs of oval eyes near base of the head back; the body is soft and smooth, no mastoid and pulsating sac; hatching opaque eggs with the diameter about 0.6mm. The phylogenetic trees showed that the leech from Hainan Island converge with Z. arugamensis from Borneo into the same species; near genetic evolution distance with the species of Aestabdella, Piscicola and Cystobranchus, and far genetic distance with W. laevis (Haemopidae) and H. nipponia (Hirudo). Hosts of Z. arugamensis from Hainan Island included Plectropomus leopardus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus malabaricus, Epinephelus coioides, Epinephelus lanceolatus, and pearl gentian grouper (male Epinephelus lanceolatus×female Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) etc.; The parasitic preference of leeches on 5 species of grouper was as follows, Plectropomus leopardus>E. malabaricus≥E. fuscoguttatus > pearl gentian grouper > E. lanceolatus. The fish leech found parasitic on the fish body of cultured grouper in Hainan Island might be an alien species through grouper or other species of marine fish trade entering Hainan Island; The leeches might not directly cause damage to the aquaculture of Hainan sea fish, but possiblely became an medium of blood bacteria, virus and parasitic diseases (Trypanosomiasis) causing a large number of fish diseases.
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